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Menopause is a normal stage in all women’s lives, but it can be a difficult one for some. Read more to understand the effects of hormonal changes and learn how to relieve them as you go through this transition.
Menopause is a normal body process that marks the end of fertility in women. It is the result of a gradual decrease in the production of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Menopause ends when menstruation hasn’t occurred for at least 12 months.
Natural menopause usually occurs in women between the ages of 40 to 60. Some factors can influence the age when women start menopause. For example, women who have had children or who have taken oral contraceptives tend to get menopause later, whereas women who smoke tend to go through it earlier. Women often go through menopause at the same age as their mothers.
Hormonal changes during menopause can cause a number of symptoms that vary a great deal from woman to woman. For some women, this period of life is very difficult, while other women barely notice the change. For 10% to 15% of women, menopause has no symptoms other than irregular periods.
Below is a list of possible menopause symptoms:
||Urinary and genital
Painful sexual intercourse
|Psychological||Skin and hair
|Muscles and joints||General|
A healthy lifestyle will help you maintain an optimal quality of life during this time.
Hot flashes are without a doubt the most common symptom and one of the most inconvenient for women who get them. They often cause palpitations, headaches and dizziness, and they can even disrupt your sleep (night sweats). Hot flashes can also start before menopause and continue for up to 10 years afterward. They can even start before you experience changes in your periods. Relieving hot flashes and their symptoms, especially if they really bother you, can improve your mood and sleep.
Tips to relieve hot flashes
Some women also experience frequent genital and urinary tract problems, such as vaginal dryness, pain during sex, mild urinary incontinence, or urinary tract or vaginal infections that become more frequent.
Menopause is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as mood swings, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes depressive symptoms. We still don’t know the exact impact of menopause on mood and emotions, but problems related to other menopause symptoms may play a role. For example, night sweats can disrupt sleep, and poor sleep can contribute to irritability, concentration or memory problems, fatigue and, in the long term, a changing mood.
Your doctor may consider prescribing medication if your menopause symptoms are so severe that they greatly affect your quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy uses natural or synthetic hormones to increase hormone levels in the blood and reduce the symptoms of menopause. Hormone replacement therapy is available in different forms, such as tablets, gels, creams, patches, topical vaginal treatments, and vaginal rings.
Every woman must make her own decision, with her doctor, about whether to take hormones based on the following:
Your doctor may order a blood test to detect how much your estrogen and progesterone levels have dropped, but this procedure isn’t always done. When you start hormone replacement therapy, you need to be evaluated once a year.
Some studies have shown that, in some women, prolonged use of hormone replacement therapy (over 5 years) is associated with a slight increase in the risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs), heart attack and stroke.
On the other hand, hormones improve bone density, decrease cholesterol levels, and improve carbohydrate metabolism. You need to consider the risks and benefits of taking hormones for your particular situation.
For various reasons, some women need to undergo a hysterectomy, which consists of removing the uterus. Women who have had this operation may still have menopause symptoms. But if they do take hormone replacement therapy, they won’t need to take progesterone unlike women who have not undergone this surgery.
The information contained herein is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide complete information on the subject matter or to replace the advice of a health professional. This information does not constitute medical consultation, diagnosis or opinion and should not be interpreted as such. Please consult your health care provider if you have any questions about your health, medications or treatment.